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• Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV)
Characteristic features: Powerful electric motor with grid-
chargeable battery; pure electric propulsion; modified combus-
tion engine with restricted power for charging the battery, also
referred to as serial hybrid.
Examples of current and planned models: GM Volt, Opel Am-
pera, Audi A1 e-tron, Daimler Blue Zero E-Cell Plus
• Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
Characteristic features: Powerful electric motor with grid-
chargeable battery; no combustion engine, no fuel tank and no
exhaust system; only the power grid and recuperation are used
for battery charging.
Examples of current and planned models: Mitsubishi i-MiEV,
Nissan Leaf, Smart E-Drive, Tesla Roadster, Daimler A-Class E-
Cell, Audi A2 e-tron, Renault Fluence Z.E.
• Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCEV)
Characteristic features: Electric motor is supplied with electri-
cal energy using hydrogen as the energy source and an energy
converter fuel cell; also has a battery (recuperation).
Examples of current and planned models:
Honda Clarity, Daimler F-Cell (B-Class), Opel Hydrogen 4
In terms of vehicle concepts, there is a distinction between ve-
hicles for personal transport (passenger vehicle, two-wheelers,
commercial vehicles, work vehicles) and public transport vehicles
(buses, rail-bound vehicles, boats). Figure 2 shows some examples
of the various areas of application.
Fig. 2: The various electric vehicle concepts
2
2. Authors’ own illustration
»In the area of electromobility the range extender will be the
first to be accepted. The range deficit due to the required high
energy density not yet being available represent a problem
that will continue to exist for the next 10 years.«
Dr. Andreas Gutscth, Project Direction -
Competence E at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)