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DEVELOPMENT TRENDS
Technological developments currently concentrate on the fol-
lowing points [Tube (2008b); Sauer (2009); Winter (2011)]:
• Increased safety, for example through new electrodes: Anode
materials (TiO
2
, metal alloys), cathode materials (LiMn
2
O
4
, LiFe-
PO
4
), separators (ceramics), electrolyte (polymer electrolyte,
ionic liquids, ceramic electrolyte)
• Increased energy density of the anode by increasing the lithium
proportion, for example through new anode materials such as
silicon anode materials (LiSi
5
) or tin
• Replacement of organic solvents and separators with inorganic
and ceramic elements
• Alternative material structures: For example, through nano-
particle electrodes and nano-structured electrodes (for anode
and cathode)
Fig. 7: Characteristics of lithium-ion battery types
7
7 Authors’ own illustration based on Tübke (2008a)
• High-energy accumulators (metal-air cells such as lithium-air
or lithium sulfur cells
• Reduction of the hazard potential and effects through internal
and external short circuits, overload, deep discharge and heat
input
• Cost reduction, through new electrodes for example: Anode
materials (TiO
2
), cathode materials (LiMn
2
O
4
, LiFePO
4
)
• Increased service life and cyclic stability: For example, through
new cell chemicals (LiNiCoMnO
2
, LiNiCoAlO
2
)
• Optimization of performance even at low temperatures
• Activation of alternative concepts (redox flow)