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Through application of this measure the air conditioning system
has a lesser influence on the achievable range because less ener-
gy from the traction batteries is required for heating or cooling the
interior and thermal storage media can be used in the automobile
at the desired temperature.
2.2.3.3 RANGE EXTENDERS
Most recently through the Opel Ampera, so-called serial hybrids
(also referred to as range-extended electric vehicles) and the
underlying technology have become well known. However, Audi,
Mercedes-Benz, Fisker and Lotus are also working on implemen-
tation of the appropriate concepts. For these, the following requi-
rements must be realized:
• Compact design
• Optimal NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) behavior
• High power to weight ratio
• Reliability (even after longer periods of non-use)
• Optimal efficiency at (a few) defined load points
• Good integration possibility in the vehicle architecture
• Low costs, low consumption and low emissions
Currently the classic combustion engine dominates as the propul-
sion system of the generator for producing electricity. However,
from the technical perspective a variety of concepts are possible
as range extender machines. For example: Classic piston machi-
nes (Otto, diesel, LPG, CNG, Stirling, 2-stroke, boxer), rotary piston
machine (Wankel engine), gas turbine, fuel cell, and also other
exotic concepts, such as the free-piston linear motor, ball-piston
engine and wave disk generator
2.2.3.4 HYDROGEN FUEL CELL
Due to its high energy density in combination with a fuel cell, hy-
drogen is an interesting energy alternative to the battery. This is
particularly true for electric vehicles that will be used for long dis-
tances and/or have a particularly heavy weight. However, the pre-
requisite for a breakthrough of this technology on the market is an
appropriate hydrogen infrastructure. For years, intensive research
has been underway in this area, and significant progress has al-
ready been made. For example, prototypes in the vehicle sector
have already been tested on the market for years. For various rea-
sons, large production runs have not yet been started. In addition
to the technical aspects, infrastructure and economic reasons are
also involved. A number of manufacturers are already executing
small production run trials (Daimler, Honda, Opel, etc.) and have
announced mass production for 2014/15. Until then, the aim is to
drive the expansion of the necessary infrastructure in Germany.
On the industry side, alliances have been formed and the goal has
been formulated to first equip the metropolitan regions with the
necessary hydrogen infrastructure and then, by 2020, to establish
1000 H
2
gas stations throughout Germany.
The Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) must be particularly empha-
sized in this regard. Fifteen partners (BMW, Daimler, Ford, VW,
Toyota, Linde, Shell, Statoil, and others) are testing the system
capability of hydrogen in daily use. This includes the continuous
operation of powerful hydrogen vehicles and their fast and safe
refueling. However, the CEP is also concerned with clean and
sustainable generation of hydrogen in order to enable hydrogen
transport and storage of H
2
in the liquid and gaseous states. Resul-
ting from the „Verkehrswirtschaftlichen Energiestrategie“, in De-
cember 2002 the CEP was established with support from politici-
ans and industry under the direction of the Federal Traffic Ministry
[Clean Energy Partnership (2011)].
Baden-Württemberg - supported by its traditionally strong hydro-
gen and fuel cell sector - can take a leading role in this regard. In
this area, since the beginning of 2012, five H
2
gas stations are al-
ready in operation across the state, some of these are subsidized
by state funds.
2.2.3.5 OPTIMIZATION - COMBUSTION ENGINE
For the most part experts unanimously view the combustion en-
gine as the dominating technology for the next decade(s). It is
used in classic combustion engine vehicles and in hybrids. It is
assumed that a large amount of money and development effort will
continue to be invested in this technology. Developments in this
area are currently aimed, in particular, at optimization of CO
2
emis-
sion and reduction of fuel consumption. Energy saving potential of
up to 30 percent is assumed [see McKinsey (2011b); BCG (2011),
for example].