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2.4.3 CONVERGENCE OF SECTORS
The automobile industry sees itself facing very great challenges in
the course of electrifying the drive train. Development of new com-
ponents and systems, as described in the previous sections, will
ultimately result in completely new vehicle concepts. For the auto-
mobile industry this development, even though its timeline is still at-
tended by uncertainty, means the greatest change since the indust-
ry came into being with the development of the combustion engine.
Even beyond the classic automobile and supplier industry the de-
velopment of electromobility has already started. Electromobility as
a cross-industry development will therefore not only have an influ-
ence on the technology developments of specific industry sectors,
but will and must lead to a convergence of the industries for the
development of successful solutions.
ENERGY
Electric vehicles must be charged in a manner that is compatible
with the battery and with the grid, and will thus become an issue
for the energy industry. Charging stations in the private, public, and
semi-private sector connect vehicles to the power grid and thus
constitute the filling station network of the future. Electric vehic-
les differ significantly from conventional consumers in the power grid
because, as opposed to household appliances or industrial consumers,
they represent mobile loads, and thus must be charged at different times
and at different locations. The million electric vehicles on German roads
demanded by the German Federal Government for the year 2020 would
only cause an increase in electricity consumption of 9.5 percent ac-
cording to studies.
27
The simultaneous locally concentrated charging
of some ten or a hundred vehicles, as well as the fast charge process,
could however cause local peak loads and thus grid overloads.
Consequently, integration of electric vehicles in the grid requires in-
telligent control. The increased infeed of renewable energies requi-
res a new alignment of the power infrastructure and storage capa-
cities, as well as flexible consumers, all of which could equalize the
fluctuating supply. Through controlling the times available for char-
ging and possibly, in the distant future, the reverse feeding of energy
from vehicle batteries into the power grid, electric vehicles can make
positive or negative standby energy available to the utility, and thus
can be used as an equalizing element for grid stabilization [System
Analysis - BW
e
mobile (2010)].
Even if a directly sustainable business model for energy suppliers
cannot yet be derived from the charging of electric vehicles, ve-
hicle manufacturers are already cooperating with energy suppliers
in joint pilot projects to test new possibilities of collaboration and
business models for the future (see also chapter 2.5).
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
In conventional vehicles information and communication technolo-
gy (ICT) is already becoming increasingly important. Today, high-end
vehicles already have up to 40 percent computer controlled compo-
nents; the value-creation share of ICT in the vehicle will continue to
increase in the future [Systemanalyse BW
e
mobile 2010].
In addition to the increasing number of driver assistance systems
and control systems in conventional vehicles, electric vehicles re-
quire additional ICT components inside and outside of the vehicle:
• In hybrid and fully electric drivetrains extended and new elect-
ronic components, control systems and bus systems are being
used (see section 2.2.2).
• Secure communication and identification must take place bet-
ween private and public charging stations and vehicles
• Users get IT-supported access to charging stations and shared-
use vehicles.
• The development of intermodal traffic concepts requires the
networking of different traffic carriers through data fusion, data
processing and data provision for the user.
• For integration of electric vehicles in fleets (car sharing, com-
pany fleets and municipal fleets, taxis and delivery fleets, etc.)
fleet management systems must be adapted to the special re-
quirements.
• Locations such as parking facilities and underground garages,
where in the future many electric vehicles will be charged in a
manner that is concentrated in time and location, require a char-
ging infrastructure with overlapping charging and load manage-
ment systems in order not to jeopardize grid stability.
• The infeed of renewable energies into intelligent networks (smart
grids) for use in electric vehicles, as well as the controlled char-
ging of these vehicles, requires innovative regulating and control
mechanisms.
27 Assumptions: Consumption of 0.2 kWh/km, kilometrage 15,000 km/year
Chapter 2