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In winter the energy required for heating constitutes a considera-
ble proportion of total energy consumption and accordingly, shor-
tens the range of the vehicles. Measurements of the AMS in ac-
cordance with TÜV Süd-E-Car-Cycle, showed the following values:
Smart ED: 47 percent range loss, Mitsubishi i-MieV: -43 percent,
Karabag Fiat 500: -20 percent [Bloch 2011)].
Fig. 16: Reduction in the achievable range of a battery electric vehicle with increasing
power requirement of the air conditioning system
17 Grossmann (2010) I Assumption: Average propulsion energy consumption of 16.7 kWh/100 km in the NEDC
18 Authors’ own illustration based on Frigge (2011)
Since a combustion engine propulsion aggregate is not present
for warming in battery electric vehicles, supplemental heating
systems need to be fitted. These types of heating systems can be
air or water PTC (positive-temperature coefficient) elements, heat
pumps or fuel heaters. All heating elements are characterized by
various advantages and disadvantages and must be evaluated
differently in accordance with the respective requirements of the
various concepts, from the hybrid to pure battery propulsion.
For efficiency increase of the air conditioning system it is also be-
neficial to adjust the temperature selectively near the bodies of the
occupants with a distributed system, instead of warming the entire
passenger compartment with a central system. The seat belt, head
rest, and the side module of the seat, or the door trim are suitable
locations for installation of air outlets for blowers near the individual
occupants [Klassen (2011)]. An electric seat heater, as already used
in conventional automobiles, a windshield heater or steering wheel
heater can be used as additional components of a distributed air
conditioning system for warming the vehicle interior [Frigge (2011)].
In addition to use of suitable components in the vehicle, precon-
ditioning the vehicle cabin prior to starting a trip, using the power
supply from the grid or a charge station at parking places, results
in a lower power requirement during the trip.
Fig. 17: Cooling (left) and heating elements (right) for battery electric vehicles and extended range vehicles
Chapter 2