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The directions for technical development of the combustion engi-
ne can be summarized in the following points:
• Downsizing with, in some cases, multiple charging via tur-
bocharger or mechanical charger (compressor)
• Downsizing via reduction in the number of cylinders
• Gasoline direct injection
• Reduction of engine friction
• Variable valve timing (VVTL: Variable Valve Timing and Lift)
• Cylinder deactivation
• Start/stop system
• Other processes: Combined combustion (Diesotto), HCCI, CAI
• Other CO
optimizations: Electronics, exhaust recirculation, op-
timized cooling circuit
In the coming years the combustion engine will be increasingly
used as a range extender. For this special application, the impor-
tant thing is for designers and researchers to develop engines that
work reliably in spite of long interruptions in running and short-
term high loads.
Electrification of the drivetrain results, as cited above, in a number
of new propulsion concepts and vehicle models and thus has a
direct influence on the complexity and diversity of the variants as
well as on the number and type of new components or of compo-
nents that are no longer required.
New components, such as battery system, electric machine, po-
wer electronics and charger, result in extended sales potential for
companies if the required competences and production capaci-
ties can be built up in house. However, at the commencement of
the current development of the electric drivetrain, the automobile
industry had neither the background of technological experience,
nor the production capacity to produce electric motors and batte-
ry systems for their requirement by themselves in the short term
[Roland Berger (2011b)]. A number of factors influence the manu-
facturing of these system components:
• Quantity variability: The distribution of electric vehicle is still
in the early stages and amounts to an extremely low quanti-
ty. However, after an (expected) slow ramp-up, there will be a
need for high scalability of production in order to cover the high
quantities required in automotive manufacturing.
• Technological maturity: The system components described are
still at the beginning of their development for automobiles and
consequently show a high level of further development possibi-
lities. Extremely short innovation cycles must also be conside-
red by the producing companies during the investment in plant
• Plants, processes, competences: These differ significantly
from the requirements that previously predominated in auto-
motive construction, accordingly time and financial resources
are required for production ramp-up.
In this regard, the production technology and the build-up of im-
portant production competence can significantly contribute to
lowering manufacturing costs in the future and thus contribute
to the required reduction in the manufacturing costs of the entire
vehicle. Competitive prices, in turn, form the basis for the build-up
of a significant market (see chapter 3.4 in this regard).