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The advantageous characteristics of electric vehicles, such as local
emission-free driving and low operating costs of the vehicles, are still
accompanied by a cost structure today that is not competitive com-
pared with that of conventional vehicles. Consequently, in order to es-
tablish electromobility on the market, intelligent planning and suitable
funding instruments are required.
The funding landscape in Germany is diverse. Beyond the topic-spe-
cific funding possibilities addressed below, there are programs that
are not specifically linked to electromobility, which however are open
to the respective sectors.
German funding activities were structured
through the National Development Plan - Electromobility of 2009. With
funds from the Economic Stimulus Package II, by the end of 2011 sub-
sidies will be provided for electromobility to the amount of 500 million
euros from the participating ministries for Economy and Technology
(BMWi), Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS), En-
vironment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), as well
as Education and Research (BMBF). For better coordination, the joint
Electromobility Office of the German Federal Government was set up
in 2010 [BMWi (2010)] and it functions as the central contact point. In
the same year, with the National Platform for Electromobility, a con-
sortium of industry, science, politics, unions, and society came into
being, that will deal with issues that are relevant for electromobility in
seven work groups [BMU (2010)]. In this regard, multiple recommen-
dations have been made for funding of electromobility that extend
beyond the term of Economic Stimulus Package II. As a result, the Fe-
deral Government published the Government Electromobility Program
[Bundesregierung (2011)], through which an additional billion euros
will be primarily devoted to fundamental research.
Likewise, show-
case projects will be supported to improve visibility of electromobility
technologies and to promote increased acceptance in Germany [NPE
(2011a)]. To achieve the latter goal, in addition to monetary incentives,
special parking places and the release of bus lanes or special lanes
for electric vehicles are being discussed [Bundesregierung (2011)].
Experts particularly emphasize the systemic approach in Germany,
which is internationally unique. In addition to fundamental research
and applied (battery) research, testing of new mobility concepts in
interaction with energy enterprises is also being promoted.
Funding is available in the German States that extends beyond the
Federal programs. In Bavaria, the electromobility promotion program
started in 2009. This program’s goal is to support research on vehicles
with electric propulsion and the associated components [STMWIVT
(2009)]. In the model municipalities, Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Bad
Neustadt, as well as in the Bavarian Forest [HS Deggendorf (2010)],
holistic mobility concepts will be provided and implemented through
infrastructure and technology management measures [Garmisch
(2010); E-Mobility (2010)]. In North Rhine-Westphalia the funding pro-
gram, ElektroMobil.NRW, was concluded in early 2010. Twenty-two
projects will be funded, mainly in the areas of battery development
and infrastructure, with a total of 46.5 million euros [NRW (2010); Au-
tocluster NRW (2010)].
In an initial state electromobility initiative, the state of Baden-Würt-
temberg provided a total of 28.5 million euros for the years 2010 to
2014. For 2011, an additional subsidy to the amount of 2 million euros
was provided for the State Agency for Electromobility and Fuel Cell
Technology e-mobil BW, for establishing a coordination point - lightweight
32 For medium-sized enterprises the Central Innovation Program - Medium-Sized Business, should be cited here.
33 The following are specified as subsidy areas: Cells and batteries, electric vehicle, charging infrastructure, and grid integration.
»Through the system approach, Germany is the internatio-
nal pioneer in public subsidies. Within the subsidy system a
central role must be accorded to research, because products
and technologies can be generated through research. For the
market, this is critical for success in the initial stage.«
Heiko Herchet, Director of the Competence Center, EDAG Group
»Setting long-term goals for the industry so that the planning
security and investment security are increased is even more
important than the financial support of politicians.«
Marco Piffaretti, Managing Director, Protoscar SA
Chapter 2