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construction [Logistik BW (2011)]. In principle, the state agency func-
tions as an umbrella organization to coordinate the activities in the
electromobility sector in Baden-Württemberg.
In concrete terms, significant sums of money will be allocated for the
establishment of a strategically important research structure. To sup-
port development of the Ulm area as a competence center for battery
research, the state invested more than 4 million euros to construct the
eLaB research laboratory at the Center for Solar Energy and Hydro-
gen Research (ZSW) in Ulm, and will also subsidize a research pro-
ject to set-up production of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries with
5 million euros [ZSW (2011)]. The newly-founded Helmholtz Institute
for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU) in Ulm receives an annual
subsidy of approximately one million euros.
However subsidy offerings could also be extended with the aid of
funds from the private sector. For example, in March 2011, Daimler AC
made 1.75 million euros available to set up a doctoral study course at
the Karlsruhe KIT [Daimler (2011)].
An informative overview of the funding possibilities for Baden-Würt-
temberg companies has been published by the State Agency for Elec-
tromobility and Fuel Cell Technology BW [eMobil BW (2011)]. e-mobil
BW supports companies and institutions in the search for suitable
funding possibilities in the area of electromobility.
Subsidy and promotion measures are also provided in other coun-
tries. A comparison of worldwide subsidy strategies shows different
approaches in different countries. The European Union (EU) has set
the goals of becoming less dependent on oil imports and of limiting
climate change. Several measures have been initiated and defined to
achieve these goals. The European Green Cars Initiative has the gre-
atest funding volume, with a total of approximately 5 billion euros, of
which 4 billion is for loans. Additional focus is placed on non-moneta-
ry regulation measures (noise, consumption, CO
, etc. investigations
of consumer expectations, promotion of common standards, as well
as specific qualification measures [European Commission (2010)].
Within Europe, Germany pursues a systemic approach to funding;
however it has not introduced purchase incentives. The later are in-
creasingly found in Northern European countries such as Denmark
(See Fig. 29). France focuses its electromobility funding on the colla-
boration of several automotive manufacturers and on the establish-
ment of a charging infrastructure (1.5 billion euros) [European Com-
mission (2009)]. Moreover there are purchase incentives for low-CO
vehicles (5,000 euros) [GTAI (2011a)].
In the USA, the funding emphasis is on battery technologies and ad-
ditional system components (2 billion dollars) [GTAI (2010)] and on the
development of fuel-saving vehicles (loans in excess of 25 billion dol-
lars). Of the loans made available in 2009, more than 9.1 billion dollars
have been called up [USA Today (2011)]. In addition, electric vehicles
will be purchased for public administration in the amount of 300 mil-
lion dollars [Bloomberg (2011)]. Further, there are several federal and
state purchase incentives and, in some cases, this amounts to 7,500
dollars on the federal level alone.
In Asia, China is pursuing an extensive funding approach. The country
has committed itself strongly to electromobility through the 12th five-
year plan (2011−2015). Thus by 2020, approx. 11 billion euros will be in-
vested in the development sector for alternative propulsion concepts
34 Autogazette (2011) I EDIE (2010) I GTA I (2011c) I Autohaus (2009) I U.S. Department of Energy (2011) I Spiegel (2011)
Fig. 29: Purchase incentives for electric cars in different countries - overview